Meditation especially on love and compassion can help in generating gamma brainwaves. In theta we are in a dream; vivid imagery, intuition and information beyond our normal conscious awareness. When you constantly operate under stress you generate high frequency beta brainwaves, and that in turn generates anxiety within you. Rather you are resting both your mind and body and not engaged in any formal activities. Hi! For example, when you drive to work, you don’t have to think about the route every time because your brain is intelligent enough to light up the corresponding neurons in the brain that tells you where to go. EEG electrodes were placed in standard locations of the scalp using a custom-made hat. Several studies indicate better relaxation and stress management by meditation techniques where you refrain from trying to control the content of the mind. If you want to know more, here's my, Want to get in touch or ask something? Source: Brain waves and meditation Meditation can be practiced in many ways (body scan, walking, loving-kindness, mantra), and there’s absolutely no dogma attached to it. Delta waves (~0.1 – 4 Hz) are the slowest of the four brain waves and are associated with deep dreamless sleep. "Given the popularity and effectiveness of meditation as a means of alleviating stress and maintaining good health, there is a pressing need for a rigorous investigation of how it affects brain function," says Professor Jim Lagopoulos of Sydney University, Australia. These are associated with deep meditation, and expert meditators are said to have experienced this state, which gives deep relaxation and dream-like imageries. Each brain wave has a purpose and helps serve us in optimal mental functioning. In contrast, a stronger connection begins to form between the lateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala and insula. Electroencephalography uses electrical leads placed all over the scalp to measure the collective electrical activity of the cerebral cortex. This change alters our state of mind or being. Alpha is ‘the power of now’, being here, in the present. Some experienced meditators are able to achieve this state of deep rest within a short time (within an hour or two), as compared to what regular people experience after a deep sleep of eight hours. By repeating an action over and over again, we train our neurons to behave in a particular manner. As you can see, brain wave activity can be divided into Beta, Alpha, Delta, Theta, and Gamma based on their frequency measured in Hertz. Oxygen consumption increases during meditation, but carbon dioxide elimination declines. ScienceDaily. That’s because your brainwaves were either in mid-range or high beta state. Up to this point in our quest for mindfulness, we explored what meditation is and the benefits it offers. A frequency is the number of times a wave repeats itself within a second. Theta waves are important to learning and memory consolidation. I teach meditation, mindfulness and help people attain self-awareness. Systems Biology Research Study Reveals Benefits of Vacation, Meditation, Three Reasons Why COVID-19 Can Cause Silent Hypoxia, Dangerous Blood Clots Form in Leg Arteries of COVID-19 Patients, Including Unhealthy Foods May Diminish Positive Effects of an Otherwise Healthy Diet, Rare Quadruple-Helix DNA Found in Living Human Cells With Glowing Probes, A Better Pen-and-Ink System for Drawing Flexible Circuits, Competitive Athletics: Detecting CRISPR/Cas Gene Doping, Music-Induced Emotions Can Be Predicted from Brain Scans, Mouse-Controlled Mouse Helps Researchers Understand Intentional Control, Superheroes, Foods and Apps Bring a Modern Twist to the Periodic Table, Key Advance for Printing Circuitry on Wearable Fabrics. Brain waves are measured in Hertz (Hz) cycles per second, and can change across a wide range of variables. (The alpha brain wave has been associated with a tranquil, serene state, while the theta wave corresponds to a deeper meditative state.) Sometimes even too much excitement becomes a problem. What that basically means is that you slow down your mind by ‘taking it easy’. Little is known yet about this state of mind, however initial research shows Gamma brain waves are associated with bursts of insight and high–level information processing. What brain wave states are most correlated with deep hypnosis? Brain waves and meditation. Electrical brain waves suggest that mental activity during meditation is wakeful and relaxed. Theta waves are associated with daydreaming, enhanced learning, and creativity. Kids spend a lot of time in theta. These waves are associated with the ability to feel deep and profound emotion. Theta Brainwaves (4 – 7Hz) These are associated with deep meditation, and expert meditators are said to have experienced this state, which gives deep relaxation and dream-like imageries. A new study suggests that nondirective meditation yields more marked changes in electrical brain wave activity associated with wakeful, relaxed attention than just resting without any specific mental technique. And at the same time, you experience emotions in the same way as you would when you’re awake. Nondirective meditation yields more marked changes in electrical brain wave activity associated with wakeful, relaxed attention, than just resting without any specific mental technique. This is due to the alpha frequencies being the closest to conscious awareness. Theta Brainwaves. It is then that the beta brainwaves become dominant. Gamma waves indicate a high level of cognitive functions, and they are easily seen in experienced meditators. There’s no need to go to a ‘guru’ or expensive retreats. On the other hand, insufficient beta activity is associated with ADHD (study). This state is associated with being peaceful, calm and relaxed. In these states, their mind slows down giving a very calming feeling. Meditation brings our brain state to the theta state. People who are addicted to daydreaming use it as a mechanism to overcome stress and depression, which is a result of too much activity going on inside the brain. Meditation can also strengthen the connection between the dmPFC and insula. It happens when you stop judging the contents of your mind and start accepting everything. Optimal Brain Wave States for Hypnosis They are involved in conscious thought, logical thinking, and tend to have a stimulating affect. What Is Mindfulness-Based Meditation and Why Should I Try It? They are not afraid to experiment and are open to all ideas, unlike adults who filter out information based on past experiences. However, too much beta activity in the wrong parts of the brain is associated with chronic stress, anxiety, and even depression. I’m sure you must have experienced dreams where you craft a story, where you are the center of attraction with remarkable capabilities. Alpha brain waves are dominant during quietly flowing thoughts, and in some meditative states. Our brain learns to activate the right group of neurons in different situations. . Gamma brain waves are a frequency pattern of normal brain activity that measures between 25 and 100 Hz, with around 40 Hz being typical in humans.. Gamma waves were essentially unknown before the development of digital EEG (electroencephalography) recorders since analog electroencephalography could not measure brain waves at that high frequency (their upper limit is about 25 Hz). You will also experience increased self-awareness. Beta – 14-30 Hz Beta waves are the most present brain wave during normal day to day activities. Definitions The EEG (electroencephalograph) measures brainwaves of different frequencies within the brain. Primarily, there are 5 types of brain waves: These are the brainwaves you produce when you are in a state of deep rest or sleep. (2010, March 31). Theta waves are often associated with deep states of meditation, peak spiritual experiences, and higher states of consciousness. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Research on meditation sought to define and characterize various practices. Even when they were not meditating, their brainwaves exhibited characteristics of gamma waves. As we go through life, our soul becomes injured from betrayal and broken trust, creating fear within us. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader: Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks: Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Alpha brain waves are only one type of brain wave. A gamma wave is a pattern of neural oscillation in humans with a frequency between 25 and 140 Hz, the 40-Hz point being of particular interest. Benefits Of Delta Brainwaves 57) Which statement best describes the physiological changes associated with meditation? From the above discussion, it is evident that anyone suffering from anxiety and depression is spending most of their time in a high beta state. Even a change from high beta to low beta will completely transform your life. This electrical activity within the brain is quite strong and is measured by an instrument called EEG (electroencephalogram). It has been scientifically proven that meditation leads to an increase in the gray matter in the frontal area of the brain (2). This is not a very healthy way of living. You must have often heard the phrase ‘slow down’. In this article, we will dive a little deep and understand what happens inside our brains when we meditate. Alpha brain waves are present during light meditations and mindfulness activities . Delta waves are characteristic of sleep. They are characteristic of wakeful rest. Brain waves are patterns of electrical activity occurring in the brain. ", Neuroimaging studies by Malia F. Mason and co-workers at Dartmouth College NH suggest that the normal resting state of the brain is a silent current of thoughts, images and memories that is not induced by sensory input or intentional reasoning, but emerges spontaneously "from within. Alpha waves promote changes in the autonomic nervous system that calm the body and mind. With the regular practice of mindfulness and meditation, you experience the effect of alpha brainwaves. Meditation increases activity in the left prefrontal cortex. 4. As children, we start with delta brainwaves. Studies examining brainwave patterns during Focus meditation practices have found increased communication between the front and back of the brain in the gamma frequency as well as increases in gamma and beta2 activity. First, when we meditate, our brain waves change. All of this can be done without you spending too much money and from the comfort of your own home. The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). It is important to know that all humans display five different types of electrical patterns or brain waves across the cortex. Alpha waves are the most common brain waves that occur at the beginning of meditation as you try to go into a deeper state of mind. a. alpha and beta b. beta and delta c. alpha and theta d. delta and theta. The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). Theta Waves 4-8 Hz. Theta Waves (4 – 8 Hz) Theta Brain Waves occur most often in sleep but are also dominant during … Today, science has reached such a stage where we can not only measure what is going on inside the brain but also train our brain using advanced techniques such as Biofeedback and Neurofeedback. Delta Waves are high amplitude brain waves with a frequency of oscillation between 0Ð4 hertz. Modern science has also established the fact that meditation greatly affects electrical activity going on within the brain. Alpha is the resting state for the brain. Alpha waves are typically associated with relaxation and their appearance follows a pretty similar pattern in experienced meditators. Beta brainwaves are predominant during the normal waking consciousness. They are crucial to all aspects of brain functioning: thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Theta state is associated with the early stages of sleep and deep meditation. Updated March 21, 2014. ... TM etc) and in almost all cases an increase in the alpha waves has been noted during meditation. The Beta Waves. Read 7 answers by scientists with 5 recommendations from their colleagues to the question asked by Agnieszka Olszewska Guizzo on Apr 16, 2014 Delta brain waves Delta brain waves are traditionally associated with deep sleep and are the slowest of the brain waves, occurring from 0-3.5 Hertz. the slowest, Delta (0.5-4Hz) in deep dreamless sleep and transcendental meditation. We have lots of resources on this blog to help you get started with mindfulness and meditation. Three fairly popular types of meditations include: Vipassana or mindfulness meditation, transcendental meditation (TM), and Tibetan Buddhism’s “loving-kindness” meditation. In fact, the theta state can help you to re-program your subconscious mind by storing information in long term memory. Fox a Savannah Nijeboer a Matthew L. Dixon a James L. Floman b Melissa Ellamil a Samuel P. Rumak a Peter Sedlmeier c Kalina Christoff a d. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/03/100319210631.htm (accessed January 15, 2021). Scientists are trying to discover why meditation is able to help reduce stress and increase physical and emotional well-being.. It’s been discovered that the meditator’s brain function is distinctly different from that of someone who doesn’t meditate. Your brain produces theta waves when you’re drifting … Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of ScienceDaily, its staff, its contributors, or its partners. Delta Brain waves are present with a frequency range from 0.2hz – 3hz . They lower blood pressure and heart rate. Theta: Binaural stimulation ranging from 4-8Hz, and are associated with rapid eye movement (REM) phase of sleep, meditation, creativity, deep relaxation and inner peace. Materials provided by The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). Brain waves with lower frequencies make us feel tired and sluggish, whereas brain waves with higher frequencies correspond to more alertness and awareness. Theta brainwaves occur most often in sleep but are also dominant in deep meditation. It’s important that you first familiarize yourself with gamma and delta states. Fear becomes a part of our soul and gets in the way of who we are and who we aspire to be. The presence of alpha waves is a sign of deep relaxation, without requiring the mind to be empty—they characterize wakeful rest. This is an exciting finding, since this area is often associated with decreased anxiety and fear, positive emotions, and a decrease in depressive feelings or symptoms. And this must be done in consultation and under the supervision of a certified medical practitioner. My own take on this is that consciousness does not disappear in this state. Financial support for ScienceDaily comes from advertisements and referral programs, where indicated. Regular contemplative practices, such as meditation, actually reverse the roles of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. It is when the brain is in delta state that the body repairs itself. Alpha (7.5-14Hz) — The Deep Relaxation Wave. Beta waves occur when the brain is working on goal-oriented tasks, such as planning a date or reflecting actively over a particular issue. Synchronized brain waves have long been associated with meditative states, and audio with properly embedded binaural beats has been proven induce and improve such states of consciousness. Gamma waves (above 40Hz). They cultivate the ability to tolerate the spontaneous wandering of the mind without getting too much involved. Brain Waves with Meditation music is a free meditation app to relax the body and mind for deep sleep. If you are suffering from anxiety, you should accept the fact that it’s unhealthy, that you deserve to live an anxiety-free life, and that you have to do something about it. They are also the last brainwaves to be produced before we die. How Meditation Affects the Subconscious Mind. Here's my. Theta brain waves are slower than gamma, beta, and alpha waves, but faster than delta waves. Meditation and its effect on brain activity and the central nervous system became a focus of collaborative research in neuroscience, psychology and neurobiology during the latter half of the 20th century. While the beta state has gotten a bad rap in some meditation circles, you need your brain to generate beta waves in order to think and function consciously. a. ", "When we measure mental calm, these regions signal to lower parts of the brain, inducing the physical relaxation response that occurs during meditation.". Measuring brain waves during meditation is a fairly new development. Enhanced well-being. Meditation develops certain areas of the brain, such as those that are responsible for memory, compassion, and empathy. Brain waves are measured by frequency, which … Lagopoulos is the principal investigator of a joint study between his university and researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) on changes in electrical brain activity during nondirective meditation. Time spend in theta is associated with deep physical relaxation, imagination, intuition, and emotional connect. With music for mindfulness meditation, people focus more, sleep better. I'm a spiritual teacher committed to raising human consciousness. Meditation triggers high-frequency brain waves associated with attention and perception: it feeds the wellspring of human creativity. Little is known yet about this state of mind, however initial research shows Gamma brain waves are associated with bursts of insight and high–level information processing. Delta brainwaves are the most mysterious of all brainwaves. These cycles (also known as frequencies) are measured in Hertz, or Hz in short. In conclusion, the researchers noted that meditation and its benefits appear to be associated with differences in the production of these frequencies. As meditation is something you can do anytime and anyplace, you can have access to the part of your brain that dictates emotions. The brain is the CPU of the entire body, and it’s essential to understand what goes on inside of it. Some of the benefits associated with alpha brainwaves are as follows: One of the ways to generate alpha brainwaves is to daydream. "Brain waves and meditation." Theta waves are associated with daydreaming, enhanced learning, and creativity. In theta, our senses are withdrawn from the external world and focused on signals originating from within. Theta (4-7.5Hz) in meditation and light sleep. The Insight Wave is the most recently discovered, and also the fastest frequency at above 40 Hz. These electrical pulses are further visually analyzed on a display monitor. A natural way to generate gamma brainwaves is to meditate. However, daydreaming is not the best way handle this type of situation because it can become addictive and interfere with your daily life. My name is Jagjot Singh. Your Brainwave During Meditation. When these neuron cells are active they pass electric pulses back and forth and send messages to each other. Which waves become more prominent? Theta brain waves are slower than gamma, beta, and alpha waves, but faster than delta waves. Alpha waves (8 to 12 Hz) Alpha brainwaves are dominant during quietly flowing thoughts, and in some meditative states. Meditation research explores how the brain works when we refrain from concentration, rumination and intentional thinking. Electrodes are placed on specific sites on the scalp to detect and record the electrical impulses within the brain. We have lots of resources on this blog to get you started with meditation and mindfulness. This is the brainwave for the fight-flight response. "Given the popularity and effectiveness of meditation as a means of alleviating stress and maintaining good health, there is a pressing need for a rigorous investigation of how it affects brain function," says Professor Jim Lagopoulos of Sydney University, Australia. There are actually five common types of brain waves. Theta waves are associated with drowsiness or arousal in adults. Eventually, you will start noticing a great deal of change in your mood as your brainwaves transition from high frequency to lower frequencies. In beta, the neural activity is at its maximum. Slowly with time, you will start noticing how your mind is becoming calm and relaxed. Gamma rhythms are correlated with large scale brain network activity and cognitive phenomena such as working memory, attention, and perceptual grouping, and can be increased in amplitude via meditation or neurostimulation. Have any problems using the site? Gamma brainwaves have been extensively studied on Buddhist monks (using fMRI imagery), and it was found that the monks were able to achieve this state in a short burst of time, and this was demonstrated with visuals on the display monitors. If you are working on solving a complex problem that requires unwavering attention, this is the state you want. Delta waves are emitted during deep and during dreamless sleep when there is unconsciousness. The dreams experienced in heightened theta state are remembered for a long period of time (potentially many years or even lifetime). "This wave type has been used as a universal sign of relaxation during meditation and other types of rest," comments Professor Øyvind Ellingsen from NTNU. This is the state most people spend time in. However, we never got into the scientific aspect of it. Gamma waves (above 40Hz). In the Theta state associated with dreams, deep meditation, sleep, and hypnosis, this is seemed to be involved with short-term memory. Practicing meditation is one of the best ways to ‘experience the alpha state.’ If you want to get started and know all about it, you can check out my eBook – The Ultimate Meditation Guide. Electrical brain waves suggest that mental activity during meditation is wakeful and relaxed. Our brain’s ability to transition through various brain wave frequencies plays a large role in how successful we are at managing stress, focusing on tasks, and getting a good night’s sleep. With this knowledge, you can bio-hack your way to unlimited joy and beat stress and anxiety for good. Whenever we perform cognitive activities such as thinking, reasoning, perceiving, or decision-making, the corresponding group of neurons are lit up inside the brain, i.e. "These methods are often described as nondirective, because practitioners do not actively pursue a particular experience or state of mind. Theta waves generate the theta rhythm, a neural oscillation in the brain that underlies various aspects of cognition and behavior, including learning, memory, and spatial navigation in many animals. Your brain will naturally begin to increase production of alpha, theta, delta and gamma waves. Brain Meditation: Letting Go Of Fear. As mentioned, different brain waves are associated with different states. In conclusion, the researchers noted that meditation and its benefits appear to be associated with differences in the production of these frequencies. In this state, your imagination runs wild. It is that twilight state which we normally only experience fleetingly as we wake or drift off to sleep. It’s an unfortunate reality that most people have accepted stress and anxiety as something normal. Alpha state is all about the ‘now’ or the present moment. Unlike other imaging based metho… In this state, there is no awareness of what is happening, but the body goes through a period of healing and regeneration. Their imagination works more than adults. It’s just that there is nothing to be aware of because our brain changes activities in the regions that correspond to sensory inputs. Also, the low production of gamma brainwaves is linked to lower mental processing, poor memory, and learning difficulties. You do not dream in this state and are completely unconscious. You have to train your mind sufficiently before you see any substantial result. Instead of concentrating on getting away from stressful thought and emotions, you simple let them pass in an effortless way.". Delta brainwaves are predominant in children up to the age of 1 year (just an estimate – this is subjective). We all know that meditation helps relax people, but what exactly happens in the brain during meditation? Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Alpha brain waves are typically present when you are calm and laid back state. The moment you start focusing on thoughts (either in positive or negative way) you move from alpha to beta. So the next question is – how are these brain waves measured? These are the waves that step in to bind together ideas, memories and experience. With the regular practice of meditation, you will learn to ‘slow down’ your mind. Beta is associated with alertness and focus which allows us to think critically and focus on school or work tasks. Frequency: 4-8 Hz; State: Creativity, insight, dreams, reduced consciousness; According to Professor Jim Lagopoulos of Sydney University, “previous studies have shown that theta waves indicate deep relaxation and occur more frequently in highly experienced meditation practitioners. Zen masters and monks are said to emit delta waves during deep meditative states. The network of cells synchronize their firing and this becomes a repeating cycle known as the “brainwave”. The individual who has practiced transcendental meditation for years experiences a greater degree of “transcending” brain waves during waking hours, whereas the individual who has only been practicing it for a short time doesn’t. Gladding explains that regular meditation actually loosens the connections between the vmPFC, insula and amygdala. The source is … © 2021 - MindfulnessQuest, All Rights Reserved. ScienceDaily, 31 March 2010. Dalia Lama has been actively involved in the study of the effect of meditation on the brain and has been encouraging Tibetan Buddhist monks to participate in such studies. A recent study conducted by neuro-scientists discovered a correlation between increased Alpha brain waves leading to decreased depression symptoms and increases in creative thinking.. it is important to note you are not asleep. As a result, you start experiencing more calm as the mind becomes quieter. They are electromagnetic oscillations with a frequency range of 8-12 Hz. These brainwaves were unknown for a long time because the analog EEG could not detect brainwaves higher than 20Hz. This particular frequency range is involved in daydreaming and sleep. Have you ever wondered “what thinking outside the box” means? During meditation, theta waves were most abundant in the frontal and middle parts of the brain. Our brain is composed of billions of neurons where each neuron connects to many other neurons in the brain. "Previous studies have shown that theta waves indicate deep relaxation and occur more frequently in highly experienced meditation practitioners. Alpha brain waves are brain wave activity with oscillations that range from 8 Hz to 13 Hz (cycles per second). Alpha waves are the most common brain waves recorded during meditation. For example, you can reproduce the patterns of brainwaves associated to falling asleep as the activity descends rapidly through alpha into theta and delta waves. Author links open overlay panel Kieran C.R. Thinking outside the box happens when your logical mind does not put constraints on your thinking. There was little delta during the relaxing and meditative tasks, confirming that nondirective meditation is different from sleep. "Previous studies have shown that theta waves indicate deep relaxation and occur more frequently in highly experienced meditation practitioners. "This default activity of the brain is often underestimated. If you have any queries or doubts, please feel free to post questions in the comments section, and I will try and answer it as soon as possible. Usually, only the most advanced meditators can remain wakeful while producing delta brain waves. Some of the expert meditators who have been practicing meditation for years easily transition from lower beta to alpha and theta states. Specifically, EEG measures the electric fields of large groups of neurons. The brain waves can be observed with an EEG (or an electroencephalograph) a tool that allows researchers to note brain wave patterns. EEG studies of experienced monks practising sitting meditation tends to show the following… At the beginning of meditation alpha waves appear and increase as meditation progresses. These three types tend to elicit significantly different EEG patterns (brain waves) and regional activations. Content on this website is for information only. Alpha brainwaves calm the overall nervous system and lower the heart rate. That’s why kids are fast learners. When you are in the beginning phase of your meditation, you transition from beta to alpha. 4. Optimal Brain Wave States for Hypnosis The most common brain waves that occur during meditation are alpha waves. There is no judgment in the theta state. Theta is our gateway to learning, memory, and intuition. Also, do consider the possibility of some gut-wrenching and life-threatening side-effects. ScienceDaily. Brain Wave Training Hypnotic States. Forget about crystals and candles, and about sitting and breathing in awkward ways. For complete information on meditation, check out my eBook – The Ultimate Meditation Guide. When you perform each action with full consciousness, there’s no way any amount of stress or anxiety can creep inside of you. "Brain waves and meditation." Theta brain waves are faster than delta and have a frequency of about 4 – 7 Hz. It takes time and patience. It is not intended to provide medical or other professional advice. Before we go deep into what brainwaves are and how to use them to our advantage, we must remember that this is a relatively new area of research. Gamma waves give the brain the feeling that you’re in peak mental and physical condition or of being in the zone. So the idea is to hack our brain and transition from high beta to either low beta or theta. Serve us in optimal mental functioning is this what allows people to move into action meditation helps relax,. Love and compassion can help you get started with mindfulness and meditation, peak experiences... Scalp where they detect the electrical pulses are further visually analyzed on display... Within you '' says Ellingsen feeling that you ’ re awake this route instrument called EEG electroencephalography... Lower mental processing what brain waves are associated with meditation poor memory, and intuition you do not dream in state. Memory, and in almost all cases an increase in the posterior parts the... Monks were able to enter and leave these states at will and with ease evaluating the meditating.... Divided into three parts: in this state and are completely unconscious our senses withdrawn! Without any specific technique, electrodes are placed on specific sites on brain. Rumination and intentional thinking should you decide to meditate for another 20 minutes, creativity., too much money and from the comfort of your meditation, check out my eBook – the Ultimate Guide. The box happens when you want ability to generate alpha brainwaves and candles, and in almost all cases increase... Together ideas, unlike adults who filter out information based on the type gamma! During the normal waking consciousness a second be produced before we die in! Is – how are these brain waves appears to be empty—they characterize wakeful rest ‘ super consciousness ’ and performance... Associated with being peaceful, calm and relaxed on signals originating from within 13 Hz cycles! Are commonly observed while we are mentally active, resting or asleep, the brain the that! For another 20 minutes is good enough for beginners ) routine and stick to it have lots of on. Great deal of change in your mood as your brainwaves were either in positive or negative ). 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