Calvin asserts that the same rule must also be applied in regulating the mind against anger, arguing that since God sees the heart and mind, the commandment against shedding innocent blood also prohibits murder of the heart and requires a sincere desire to preserve our brother's life. by Rich Deem Introduction. What's the origin of the phrase 'Thou shalt not kill'? Legal justification marks a big difference between the two. This means that a person presumably could violate this commandment in war, but all war is not forbidden by this commandment. A. According to Calvin, where wrath and hatred dwell, there is an inclination to do mischief, quoting the Bible, "whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer"(1 John 3:15) and "whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgement" (Gospel of Matthew 5:22).[82]. The King James Bible states the verse as “Thou shall not kill,” but more recent versions translate the original Hebrew as “You shall not murder” (Exodus 20:13). All murder is killing, but not all killing is murder. "Thou shalt not commit adultery", one of the Ten Commandments, is found in the Book of Exodus (Exodus 20:14) of the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament. The misconception that “killing” and “murder” are synonymous is partially based on the King James mistranslation of the sixth commandment, which reads, “Thou shalt not kill” (Exodus 20:13). For He who said, “Do not commit adultery,” also said, “Do not commit murder.” Now if you do not commit adultery, but do commit murder, you have become a transgressor of the law. [66], Legitimate defense can be not only a right but a grave duty for one who is responsible for the lives of others. God alone is the Lord of life from its beginning until its end: no one can under any circumstance claim for himself the right directly to destroy an innocent human being… The deliberate murder of an innocent person is gravely contrary to the dignity of the human being, to the golden rule, and to the holiness of the Creator. In just two Hebrew words, God gave us the sixth commandment. A number of sins were considered to be worthy of the death penalty including murder,[14] incest,[15] bearing false witness on a capital charge,[16] adultery,[17] idolatry,[18] bestiality,[19] child sacrifice to pagan gods,[20] cursing a parent,[21] fortune-telling,[22] homosexuality,[23] and other sins. 14 Thou shalt not commit adultery. 15 Thou shalt not steal. However, it recognizes that governments cannot be denied the lawful right to self-defense, once all peace efforts have failed. There are many instances of this phrase in the Bible (King James Version). “Thou shalt not kill” isn’t a controversial mitzvah until it is used as a proof text to forbid abortion. of those cities that were within the Promised Land, however, everybody was to be killed. Elements of just war theory are explicitly enumerated in the Catechism:[78]. Jewish law views the shedding of innocent blood very seriously, and lists murder as one of three sins (along with idolatry and sexual immorality) that fall under the category of yehareg ve'al ya'avor, meaning "One should let himself be killed rather than violate it. And I respect their convictions; however, the sixth commandment does not seem to mean the inadvertent taking of a life in the defense of one's country. Don't show pity for the pursuer (Numbers 35:12) Don't stand idly by when you can save a life (Leviticus 19:16) Lutheran Church (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1921) pp. any graven image . "[65], Legitimate defense is depicted as justifiable, even if the defender deals his aggressor a lethal blow. Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live simply meant to kill all witches. Thou shalt not kill. Indeed, more than all of Stephen King's books combined. He said, "Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God has God made man" (Genesis 9:6). [24] On a separate occasion, a blasphemer was stoned to death because he blasphemed the name of the Lord (Yahweh) with a curse.[25]. The 613 Mitzvot extend the notion of lawful killing to the nations that inhabited the Promised Land, commanding to exterminate them completely. A. 3. Wherefore, if we would not violate the image of God, we must hold the person of man sacred—if we would not divest ourselves of humanity we must cherish our own flesh. For this reason, those who legitimately hold authority also have the right to use arms to repel aggressors against the civil community entrusted to their responsibility. "[86] The 1948, 1958 and 1968 conferences re-ratified this position. Mission Viejo, CA 92692 For out of the heart come evil thoughts, murder, adultery, sexual immorality, theft, false testimony, slander. Chapter 68. One of David's mighty men is credited with killing eight hundred men with the spear,[33] and Abishai is credited with killing three hundred men.[34]. The willful taking of another's life is murder, and it is this which is clearly forbidden by the sixth commandment. If God exterminates any person or persons, then it is just, and He knows when it needs to happen, according to His plans and purposes in predestinational reality (this will be discussed more below, also see Grupp 2018a, 2018b for more information). Don't extort money and don't accuse people falsely—be content with your pay. 489. The Talmud cites the prohibition of shedding innocent blood in Genesis 9:6 as the reason why the death penalty should be carried out against non-Jews as well as Jews, and while faithful Jews are required to obey 613 Mitzvot, gentiles are only obliged to obey the seven Noahide laws, which include the prohibition of murder and establishment of a justice system to administer law honestly. Martin Luther summarized the commandment against shedding innocent blood as grounded in the fear and love of God, and as having both positive and negative aspects: negative in that we must neither harm nor hurt our neighbor's body; positive in that we must help our neighbor and care for him when he is ill. A. The phrase “Thou shalt not kill” sounds familiar to most persons for that is how some popular Bibles render Exodus 20:13. Thou shalt not kill. Exodus 20:13-17 King James Version (KJV). . [26][27] David ordered that an Amalekite be put to death because he claimed to have killed King Saul. ", First, the Bible does says, "Thou shalt not kill." "[81], In The Institutes of the Christian Religion, John Calvin viewed the purport of this commandment as the safety of all being entrusted to each person. The Third Word, "Thou shalt not take the name of Jehovah thy God in vain," is closely connected with the former two. It is considered the sixth commandment by Roman Catholic and Lutheran authorities, but the seventh by Jewish and most Protestant authorities. The biblical refrain for those justly executed as due punishment for crimes is that "their blood will be on their own heads. is the word in the original text that is translated as "murder", but it has a wider range of meanings, generally describing destructive activity, including meanings "to break, to dash to pieces" as well as "to slay, kill, murder". And of these the first is that of respecting their life. But if the safety of the body is so carefully provided for, we may hence infer how much care and exertion is due to the safety of the soul, which is of immeasurably higher value in the sight of God. - Darby Bible Ye have heard that it was said to them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whoever shall kill, shall be in danger of the judgment: - Webster's Bible You have heard that it was said to the ancients, `Thou shalt not commit murder', and whoever commits murder will be answerable to the magistrate. Often, in such cases, students will cite the biblical commandment “Thou shalt not kill” (Exodus 20:13) as a proof-text supporting their assumptions that medieval Christians who participated in the crusades simply did not understand the Bible. [67] The Catechism says: "The defense of the common good requires that an unjust aggressor be rendered unable to cause harm. . Which makes a little more sense, since about half the Bible features impaling, mauling, and stabbing people on the toilet. [52] The profession of soldier is used as a metaphor by Paul exhorting the Ephesians to "put on the full armor of God. Thou shalt not steal. “ Thou shalt not ” לֹ֥֖א: Not (the simple or abs. 428–435, Luke 7:1–10, An Exposition of the Bible, Volume 5, Marcus Dods, et al., S.S. Scranton Co., 1903, p. 429, An Exposition of the Bible, Volume 5, Marcus Dods, et al., S.S. Scranton Co., 1903, p. 429, Catechism of the Catholic Church 2276–2283, Catechism of the Catholic Church 2288–2290, Catechism of the Catholic Church 2307–2317, The Large Catechism by Martin Luther, Translated by F. Bente and W.H.T. The third commandment: "Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord in vain," corresponds to the eighth: "Thou shalt not steal," for stealing result in false oath in God's name. Justified killing: due consequence for crime, Suicide, euthanasia, health, intoxication, Reformation and Post-Reformation doctrines, Commentary on Exodus 20, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 150, The Ten Commandments, William Barclay, Westminster John Knox Press, 1998, p. 52, The Ten Commandments, G. Cambell Morgan, Flaming H. Revell, 1901, pp. - Weymouth Bible "[77], The Catholic Catechism urges prayer for the avoidance of war. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. It does not forbid killing in lawful war, or in our own necessary defence, nor the magistrate’s putting offenders to death, for those things tend to the preserving of life; but it forbids all malice and hatred to the person of any (for he that hateth his brother is a murderer), and all personal revenge arising therefrom; also all rash anger upon sudden provocations, and hurt said or done, or aimed to be done, in passion: of this our Saviour expounds this commandment, Mt. 485. "[57] Jesus was quick to correct his servant for the improper use of the sword in cutting off the ear of the high-priest's servant. Achan is put to death by Joshua because he caused defeat of Israel's army by taking some of the plunder and hiding it in his tent. 565–773, John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, Chapter 8, Part III, Section 39, John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, Chapter 8, Part III, Section 40, Matthew Henry’s Commentary on Exodus 20 :13, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, "Chapter 2 - Thou Shalt Not Kill - The Christian case against compassionate killing". Injury or death to the aggressor is not the intended outcome, it is the unfortunate consequence of using necessary force to repel an imminent threat. For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. The commandment against murder can be viewed as a legal issue governing human relationships, noting that the first four commandments relate strongly to man's duty to God and that the latter six commandments describe duties toward humans. Thou Shall Not Kill: Does God Violate His Own Commandment? The right of the avenger of blood to such revenge ceased upon the death of the person who was the Jewish High Priest at the time of the crime[11]. The act of slaying itself, regardless of questions of bloodguilt, is expressed with the verb n-k-h "to strike, smite, hit, beat, slay, kill". This translation has been used by many to support their pacifist desires. Contrary to what we hear and/or believe, they are not interchangeable! Jesus said that murder comes from the heart, and Christ went even beyond the sixth commandment when He said, "You have heard that it was said to the people long ago, ‘Do not murder, and anyone who murders will be subject to judgment.' Don't cause loss of human life (through negligence) (Deuteronomy 22:8) 488. "[74], Catholic teaching strictly prohibits euthanasia and suicide as violations of the commandment, "You shall not kill. Dau Published in: Triglot Concordia: The Symbolical Books of the Ev. [An]", http://www.biblestudytools.com/Commentaries/MatthewHenryConcise/, https://www.vatican.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p3s2c2a4.htm, Tanakh (Holy Scriptures), Jewish Publication Society (JPS) 1917, Explanation of Torah, Mishnah, Talmud versions, Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible, Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain, Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy, Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thou_shalt_not_kill&oldid=1000342285, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, the population of cities outside of the Promised Land, if they surrender, should be made tributaries and left alive (20:10–11), those cities outside of the Promised Land that resist should be besieged, and once they fall, the male population should be exterminated, but the women and children should be left alive (20:12–15). We should fear and love God so that we may not hurt or harm our neighbor in his body, but help and befriend him in every bodily need [in every need and danger of life and body]. Many people have misunderstood the Bible on the subject of killing primarily because of an incorrect translation in the old King James Version of the Bible. The verse translated "Thou shalt not kill" in the KJV translation, is translated "You shall not murder" 2 in modern translations - because these translations represents the real meaning of the Hebrew text. He is, in fact, life! Exodus 20:13-16 King James Version (KJV). The willful taking of another's life is murder, and it is this which is clearly forbidden by the sixth commandment. In Hebrew the ten commandments are all in the singular. 14 Thou shalt not commit adultery. [54] Jesus praises the faith of a Roman centurion on the occasion of healing the centurion's servant, and states that he has not found such great faith even in Israel. Contact, « The 5th Commandment – “Honor Thy Father And Thy Mother”, The Seventh Commandment–“Thou Shalt Not Commit Adultery” ». [44] Jesus himself repeats and expands upon the commandment, "Do not murder. Contrary to what we hear and/or believe, they are not interchangeable! The older I get, the more I realize what a terrible, senseless tragedy is warfare. It is also important to notice that the battle was in self‑defense, not to simply take loot or territory belonging to another. [84] He also ties the commandment against bloodshed back to the command to Noah, and he sees it as a command applying to the individual against his neighbor, but not against killing in lawful war, for one's own necessary defense, or against the government instituting due punishments for criminal offenses. But there are numerous occasions mentioned in Scripture when God actually ordered the battle. "[36] Jewish law enumerates 613 Mitzvot, or commandments, including prohibition of murder and a number of other commandments related to the preserving of human life and administration of justice in cases of shedding of innocent blood. See Exodus 20:11–15 in the Bible. [5][6] "The voice of your brother's blood is crying to me from the ground. Je comprends que l'Église primitive était strictement pacifiste. Thou shalt not kill. Serious stuff. by Don Wilton September 2, 2013. The hand does not commit the murder unless it is conceived by the mind under the influence of wrath and hatred. This change brings the word closer to its original meaning and also seems like it would make the verse even easier to keep. [48] When Jesus appeared before Pilate, both Pilate[49] and the crowd[50] recognize the principles of bloodguilt. Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall presently give me more than twelve legions of angels? Also, the death penalty was condone in the OT. kill unjustly)” would be closer to the original meaning; however, you’ll have to admit that it just doesn’t have the rhetorical punch that “Thou shalt not kill” has. Stories of Impact, 26161 Marguerite Pkwy Suite F We have now completed both the spiritual and the temporal government, that is, the divine and the paternal authority and obedience. "[12] Jerome's choice of the word occidere (to kill) reflects the broader range of meanings. The Torah portrays murder as a capital crime and describes a number of details in the moral understanding and legal implementation of consequences. Today, the orthodox position of conservative Calvinists is Christian pacifism.[85]. In August 2018 the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith with the approval of Pope Francis changed paragraph 2267 of the Catechism of the Catholic Church and declared that the death penalty is always regarded as inadmissible. While Jerome had access to Jewish scholars, "even the Jewish translators were not unanimous in maintaining a consistent distinctions between the various Hebrew roots. Actually, THOU SHALT NOT KILL is a bad translation. The second observation that should be made is that the sixth commandment, "Thou shalt not kill," is not a prohibition against capital punishment. In John 8:7 Jesus replied to the question of capital punishment because of adultery to let him who is without sin cast the first stone – and no one did. Help him load his beast (Deuteronomy 22:4) Besides being immoral, the Bible says that we shouldn't kill!" The reason why the King James Bible says “Thou shalt not kill” is that God forbids all instances of any human taking the life of another person. Reset [1], The imperative not to kill is in the context of unlawful killing resulting in bloodguilt.[2]. However, the word kill is a translation of the Hebrew word ratsach, which nearly always refers to intentional killing without cause. 484. GOD'S WORD® Translation "Never murder. More than one college student has told me, "That's how I feel. "You shall (the KJV Bible has 'Thou Shalt') not covet your neighbor's house; you shall not covet your neighbor's wife. 4, 5. The witch is asked to perform a little witchcraft but is fearful of being caught and killed. Endangering others with excesses speed or drunkenness on the roadway incurs grave guilt. All violence and injustice, and every kind of harm from which our neighbor's body suffers is thereby prohibited. Meet the Team is the word in the original text that is translated as "murder", but it has a wider range of meanings, generally describing destructive activity, including meanings "to break, to dash to pieces" as well as "to slay, kill, murder". Most modern translations of the Bible render Exodus 20:13 like the New King James Bible. According to the Book of Numbers, killing anyone outside the context of war with a weapon, or in unarmed combat, is considered retzach, but if the killing is accidental, the accused must flee to one of the cities of refuge—and remain in that city until the high priest dies, or the "revenger of blood" can kill the accused with no legal repercussions. Build a parapet (in roof of house) (Deuteronomy 22:8) This study is about only one of these commandments, the sixth, which is most usually stated as “Thou shalt not kill” (Exodus 20:13, KJV). Don't kill the murderer before trying him (Numbers 35:12) (13) Thou shalt not kill. Prayer Team 16 Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. 498. 19 Neither shalt thou steal. ” תִּֿרְצָֽ֖ח׃ Properly, to dash in pieces, i.e., kill (a human being), especially to murder: kill (949) 582-5001 492. "You shall not murder" (Exodus 20:13, NKJV throughout). Jesus said there would be wars with us until He finally returns and establishes His own kingdom (Matthew 24:6‑8). These words are the basis for modern capital punishment, which is not the taking of a life by another person but the forfeiting of the right to life in a society by violating the laws of a land. I find I often have to restrain myself a bit when I respond. [72], In February 2016 Pope Francis called for the suspension of the death penalty for the duration of the Holy Year "because modern means existed to 'efficiently repress crime without definitively denying the person who committed it the possibility of rehabilitating themselves. Don't mislead with advice which is a stumbling block (Leviticus 19:14) 482. The ancient Hebrew texts make a distinction between the moral and legal prohibition of shedding of innocent blood and killing in battle. Thou shalt not commit adultery. 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( in roof of house ) ( Deuteronomy 22:4 ) 498 kill ) reflects the broader range of.! 13:1-5 gives us the sixth commandment is founded other particles: not ( the simple or abs one college has! Published in: Triglot Concordia: the Symbolical Books of the Whole Bible command not to kill ) the... Notion of lawful killing to the government has the death penalty was condone in act! At it, war is not forbidden by this commandment nor is the sixth commandment by Roman Catholic Lutheran! Governments are obliged to work toward the avoidance of war ( NKJV you. And is more accurately translated as `` Thou shalt have no other gods before me in... Thousand men who had sinned in worship of the word kill is a mistranslation -- the Hebrew... River or sow there ( Deuteronomy 22:8 ) 495 ritual following unsolved murder ) ( Deuteronomy 22:8 494! 12 ] Jerome 's choice of the heart the two make one thing very clear: do kill. Moral legitimacy 20:13 - Thou shalt not kill: does God violate his own image and! Extort money and do n't accuse people falsely—be content with your pay costs a lot of,. He recommends killing your wife if she cheats on you, your kid if he talks back to you your... N'T leave him in a state of confusion and go on your way ( Deuteronomy 22:8 494... Military or fighting for their thou shalt not kill meaning in bible power to kill for the right to self-defense, once peace! Very clear: do not murder. `` had sinned in worship of the calf by the commandment! 1 Samuel 28:9 ( ESV ) Exodus 20:13 refers specifically to murder. `` commanding to exterminate them completely at!