school refusal assessment scale

The condition that scores the highest is interpreted as the primary maintaining function of school refusal however the scores on the other conditions are also taken into account when developing a treatment plan. School refusal is a problem that is stressful for children, families, and school personnel. Objective: Psychometric properties of the original and a modified version of the «Einschätzungsskala der Schulverweigerung» (German version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale, SRAS; Kearney & Silverman, 1993; Overmeyer et al., 1994) were analyzed in order to identify alternative ways to revise the SRAS/ESV compared to the existing revision SRAS-R (Kearney, 2002). %�쏢 School refusal often is associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Additionally, a provider may administer the School Refusal Assessment Scale- Revised, a self- and parent-report measure that can help identify school avoidance and what might be driving this behavior. Furthermore, diagnosed internalising disorders tend to be more common with negatively reinforced school refusers, separation anxiety disorders are generally more common for attention based school refusal and oppositional defiant and conduct disorder are generally more common for school refusing based on tangible reinforcement (Kearney, 2002). The SRAS-R is designed to measure the relative strength of the four functional conditions listed above and is typically given to the child (if appropriate) and to both parents. Separate child and parent versions were developed, and items are rated on a 7 -point Likert -type scale from never (0) to always (6). Factor analysis has identified three main constructs of the scale which include a combination of the first two negative reinforcement functions, attention seeking and tangible reinforcement. The first two are centred around negative reinforcement and the other two around positive reinforcement of school refusal behaviour. x��}Y���qD�K�W ��c��ݶdy��6�>|H� ����z0���j`tX�����8�*�����6a�9_t�qeDdd�W��·[����Ǜ�����������Ԓ�����?���?���7���z�=���?�|�C������Ǜ�b�a������ S�SX�y�[�7�`rw������|u�6�6G[��_����5}� ?��� �7>��e)Wm����*��` Please only do so at your own discretion and like with all Psychological tools, please use with caution as many methods of assessment have their flaws. %PDF-1.4 Oorspronkelijke versie Kearney & Silverman (1993) Huidige versie Heyne, Vreeke & Maric (2008) Doel Deze vragenlijst meet de relatieve kracht van vier gehypothetiseerde functies van schoolweigering en spijbelen. The School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS) was first constructed by Kearney and Silverman (1993) and then revised in 2002 (Kearney). There is still limited support for the four-factor model inherent to the SRAS and its revision (SRAS-R). Repeated school refusal can negatively impact a young persons’ learning and development. School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R) 36 Parental Authority Questionnaire-Adapted Student Version 36 Parental Authority Questionnaire-Adapted Parent Version 36 Statistical Analysis 37 Chapter 3: Results 38 Research Question 1 38 Research Question 2 38 Research Question 3 43 Research Question 4 46 Chapter 4: Discussion 49 A mean score is calculated for each function and are ranked from highest to lowest. Kearney, C. A.; Silverman, W. K. (1993), "Measuring the function of school refusal behavior: The School Refusal Assessment Scale", Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22 (1): 85–86Kearney, C. A. The revised scale identified four functions of school refusal which included: (a) avoidance of school-related stimuli provoking negative affectivity (e.g., teacher, test), (b) escaping from aversive social or evaluative situations, (c) to get attention from others and (d) to pursue positive tangible reinforcement outside of school (e.g., television, play). 2. Mean correlations for each function subscale on the parental questionnaire ranged from .61- .78 and from .56- .78 on the child version. 5 0 obj Separate child and parent versions were developed, and items are rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale from never (0) to always (6). The revised version of the scale was shown to have good concurrent validity for each function subscale with the original version of the scale (r range from .65 to .77). The scale was created to overcome shortcomings from previous classification systems including an over reliance on clinical judgement rather than empirical evidence leading to a lack of rater reliability, issues with validity and lack of utility in treatment (Kearney & … The School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS) was developed to identify four factors that might maintain a youth’s school attendance problem (SAP) and thus be targeted in treatment. He complains of nausea and headache most school days and has to be cajoled into getting out of bed, but his mother says he is fine on weekends. Find out who you should be dealing with at your current school ; Learn your rights under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) Learn which types of therapy are recommended for school refusal; Assessment scale. The SRAS was constructed based on the authors clinical observations as well as research studies looking at successful treatment targeting specific behaviours relating to school refusal. Item means for each functional School refusal may be a little more understood that when it was identified in the 1930s, but we still haven’t come up with any effective or pragmatic solutions, says Fran Morgan I didn’t choose to be an expert on school refusal; it chose me. If two functions are within .25 of one another they are ranked as equal. Categories one and two refer to school refusal motivated by negative reinforcement. School Refusal Assessment £ 10.00 The School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R), developed by Christopher Kearney and Wendy Silverman, is a psychological assessment tool designed to evaluate school refusal disorder symptoms in children and identify their reasons for avoiding school. Supporting your child with school anxiety and refusal If your child is refusing to go to school, or is feeling anxious, here's our information and advice to help you support your child and work with the school. The School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R), developed by Christopher Kearney and Wendy Silverman, is a psychological assessment tool designed to evaluate school refusal disorder symptoms in children and identify their reasons for avoiding school. Versions are available for children and parents, who complete their respective scales separately (see Related resources). The School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS) was developed to identify four factors that might maintain a youth’s school attendance problem (SAP), and thus be targeted for treatment. One method for quickly assessing the role of these functions is the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised. Cluster analysis revealed four school refusal behaviour profiles: Non-School refusal, School Refusal by Positive Reinforcement, School Refusal by Negative Reinforcement, and School Refusal by Mixed Reinforcement. All but two items had significant inter-rater reliability on the parent questionnaire with mean correlations for each subscale ranging from .46 to .57. Some young people may feel worried and not want to attend school occasionally, but for some, the difficulties around attending school can persevere and result in them repeatedly refusing to attend school. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22(1), 85-96. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp2201_9, Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-5). The SRAS-R is a 24-item measure with six items devoted to each function. Identifying the Function of School Refusal Behavior: A Revision of the School Refusal Assessment Scale. This allows scores to be combined from each respondent to create a more complete picture of school refusing. However, youth normally do score higher in one function or the other. This will have consequences for future employment and create a need for social security benefits. School Refusal Assessment Scale (revised edition; SRAS-R) (Kearney, 2002). School Refusal Assessment Scale (Table 6, online)23 includes a child, parent, and teacher form and examines school refusal in correlation to negative and positive rein-forcers. The SRAS was revised to improve psychometric properties, increase score range and to modify the functional model (Kearney, 2002). Abstract. School Refusal Assessment Scale - Revised, Developed by Christopher Kearney and Wendy Silverman. All items on the parent and child questionnaire had significant test-retest reliability over a 7 to 14-day period. The results reveale … School Refusal Assessment Scale – Revised (- Nederlandse vertaling) (SRAS-R(-NL) Algemene gegevens vragenlijst. Following Descriptive functional assessment of school refusal behavior: SRAS The initial version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale consisted of 16 items, 4 for each functional condition mentioned earlier. Gebruik Angst. The School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS) was first constructed by Kearney and Silverman (1993) and then revised in 2002 (Kearney). �"��_����F�͊!b�*��� 9XlN���/A&. Kearney, C. (2002). This gives the questionnaire both typological and dimensional properties (Kearney & Silverman, 1993). Descriptive functional assessment of school refusal behavior: SRAS The initial version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale consisted of 16 items, 4 for each functional condition mentioned earlier. Each item is presented on a Likert scale ranging from 0-6 with 0 being never and 6 being always. 18,19 This scale poses 24 questions, the answers to which measure the relative strength of each of the 4 functions. It also allows a clinician to examine differences between respondents and use this information in designing and targeting treatment. The following scales were considered specific measures to assess school refusal behavior: the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised for Children (SRAS-R-C, Kearney, 2002a; SRAS, Kearney & Silverman, 1993), the Feelings of School Avoidance (FSA, Watanabe & Koishi, 2000), the School Avoidance Scale (SAS, Fujigaki, 1996) and the School Refusal Personality Scale (SRPE, Honjo et al., … Recent studies indicate problems with the wording of eight items added to the SRAS to form the SRAS-R. There is still limited support for the 4-factor model inherent to the SRAS and its revision (SRAS-R). 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